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  Administrative Code of the Philippines:
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 292 INSTITUTING THE "ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1987" July 25, 1987

    WHEREAS , the Administrative Code currently in force was first forged in 1917 when the relationship between the people and the government was defined by the colonial order then prevailing;

WHEREAS , efforts to achieve an integrative and over-all recodification of its provisions resulted in the Administrative Code of 1978 which, however, was never published and later expressly repealed;

WHEREAS , the effectiveness of the Government will be enhanced by a new Administrative Code which incorporates in a unified document the major structural, functional and procedural principles and rules of governance; and

WHEREAS , a new Administrative Code will be of optimum benefit to the people and Government officers and employees as it embodies changes in administrative structures and procedures designed to serve the people;

NOW, THEREFORE , I, CORAZON C. AQUINO, President of the Philippines, by the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby promulgate the Administrative Code of 1987, as follows:

INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS

    Sec. 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Administrative Code of 1987. "

    Sec. 2. General Terms Defined. - Unless the specific words of the text, or the context as a whole, or a particular statute, shall require a different meaning:

    (1) "Government of the Republic of the Philippines" refers to the corporate governmental entity through which the functions of government are exercised throughout the Philippines, including, save as the contrary appears from the context, the various arms through which political authority is made effective in the Philippines, whether pertaining to the autonomous regions, the provincial, city, municipal or barangay subdivisions or other forms of local government.

    (2) "National Government" refers to the entire machinery of the central government, as distinguished from the different forms of local governments.

    (3) "Local Government" refers to the political subdivisions established by or in accordance with the Constitution.

    (4) "Agency of the Government" refers to any of the various units of the Government, including a department, bureau, office, instrumentality, or government-owned or controlled corporations, or a local government or a distinct unit therein.

    (5) "National agency" refers to a unit of the National Government.

    (6) "Local agency" refers to a local government or a distinct unit therein.

    (7) "Department" refers to an executive department created by law. For purposes of Book IV, this shall include any instrumentality, as herein defined, having or assigned the rank of a department, regardless of its name or designation.

    (8) "Bureau" refers to any principal subdivision or unit of any department. For purposes of Book IV, this shall include any principal subdivision or unit of any instrumentality given or assigned the rank of a bureau, regardless of actual name or designation, as in the case of department-wide regional offices.

    (9) "Office" refers, within the framework of governmental organization, to any major functional unit of a department or bureau including regional offices. It may also refer to any position held or occupied by individual persons, whose functions are defined by law or regulation.

    (10) "Instrumentality" refers to any agency of the National Government, not integrated within the department framework vested within special functions or jurisdiction by law, endowed with some if not all corporate powers, administering special funds, and enjoying operational autonomy, usually through a charter. This term includes regulatory agencies, chartered institutions and government-owned or controlled corporations.

    (11) "Regulatory agency" refers to any agency expressly vested with jurisdiction to regulate, administer or adjudicate matters affecting substantial rights and interests of private persons, the principal powers of which are exercised by a collective body, such as a commission, board or council.

    (12) "Chartered institution" refers to any agency organized or operating under a special charter, and vested by law with functions relating to specific constitutional policies or objectives. This term includes the state universities and colleges and the monetary authority of the State.

    (13) "Government-owned or controlled corporation" refers to any agency organized as a stock or non-stock corporation, vested with functions relating to public needs whether governmental or proprietary in nature, and owned by the Government directly or through its instrumentalities either wholly, or, where applicable as in the case of stock corporations, to the extent of at least fifty-one (51) per cent of its capital stock: Provided, That government-owned or controlled corporations may be further categorized by the Department of the Budget, the Civil Service Commission, and the Commission on Audit for purposes of the exercise and discharge of their respective powers, functions and responsibilities with respect to such corporations.

    (14) "Officer" as distinguished from "clerk" or "employee" , refers to a person whose duties, not being of a clerical or manual nature, involves the exercise of discretion in the performance of the functions of the government. When used with reference to a person having authority to do a particular act or perform a particular function in the exercise of governmental power, "officer" includes any government employee, agent or body having authority to do the act or exercise that function.

    (15) "Employee" , when used with reference to a person in the public service, includes any person in the service of the government or any of its agencies, divisions, subdivisions or instrumentalities.

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